IMU (Inertial Measurement Unit)

Application Note"Vehicle-to-Vehicle and Infrastructure-to-Vehicle Communication" (V2X) to Realize Autonomous Driving Technology

Motion Sensors The evolution of sensing technology and communication network contribute to the realization of Autonomous driving society and its growth. In association with full-scale expansion of the "5G service" next-generation wireless communication standard, great attention is being placed on wireless technology intended for "vehicle-to-vehicle and infrastructure-to-vehicle communication" (V2X) to communicate data between automobiles and their surroundings. While the TDK Group can offer a lineup of various electronic components for V2X, this article introduces a selection of IMU (Inertial Measurement Unit) and high-frequency products for Telematics Control Units (TCUs).

Telematics Control Units (TCUs)

The Autonomous Driving society is coming to the reality in order to reduce the number of casualties caused by traffic accidents and improve the level of convenience of mobility services. In addition to cameras, millimeter-wave radar, and LiDAR, autonomous vehicles must be equipped with communication functions provided by equipment known as Telematics Control Units (TCU), devices which communicate with vehicles using wireless methods to exchange vehicle-to-infrastructure and vehicle-to-vehicle information. TCUs include GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System), cellular and Wi-fi antennas, and IMUs (Inertial Measurement Units). These IMUs use methods such as SLAM (Simultaneous Localization and Mapping) and "dead reckoning" (estimated navigation) which can detect precise vehicle positioning if GNSS signals are interrupted by tunnels, overhead crossings, underground locations, high-rise buildings, or other shielding conditions.

Figure 1. V2X-Telematics Control Unit Block Diagram (Excerpt from Application Guide)
図1 V2X - テレマティクス・コントロールユニットブロック図
図1 V2X - テレマティクス・コントロールユニットブロック図

IMUs (Inertial Measurement Units)

IMUs (Inertial Measurement Units) are combined devices which integrate 3-axis gyro sensors and 3-axis acceleration sensors for detecting precise vehicle positioning into a single chip, and are able to achieve the highest level of performance in the industry with outstanding noise characteristics, temperature stability, sensitivity, and precision. These properties are key elements for the development of applications including navigation, Telematics Control Units, and locators. Furthermore, these products are equipped with advanced programmable multi-interface devices which can be supplemented with external sensors such as pressure gauges and barometers.

Table 1. Details of IMU (Inertial Measurement Unit)
Part Number IAM-20680
Axis 6-Axis IMU (3-axis GYR + 3axis XL)
Dimensions: LxWxT(Nom) / mm 3 x 3 x 0.75
Digital Output I²C, SPI
VDD Power Supply Voltage / V 1.71 to 3.6
Gyro FSR / (°/sec) ±250/500/1000/2000
Gyro Sensitivity Error 131/65.5/32.8/16.4
Gyro Rate Noise / (dps/√Hz) 0.005
Acceleration FSR / g ±2/4/8/16
Acceleration Sensitivity Error 16384/8192/4096/2048
Operating Temperature Range / ℃ -40 ~ 85
Automotive Standard (AEC) AEC-Q100
Figure 2. IMU (Inertial Measurement Unit): IAM-20680
図2 IMU (イナーシャル・メジャーメント・ユニット) :IAM-20680

High-Frequency Products

Automotive Chip Antennas/Filters, Baluns, Diplexers, and Directional Couplers

During autonomous driving, automobiles must have wireless connections established using cellular signals or DSRC connection and perform two-way infrastructure-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-vehicle communication to detect obstacles or other approaching vehicles which cannot be seen, and TDK's ANT antenna series can serve to support this in-vehicle connectivity. The ANT series of ceramic chip antennas is characterized by a compact, low-profile design achieved through a unique structure which uses low-temperature co-fired ceramics (LTCC) technology. Products in the ANT series are small and thin with no loss of performance or reliability, contributing to reduced space requirements with an antenna area among the smallest in the industry and allowing significant simplification and efficiency improvement during board revisions at each stage of board design and development.
In addition to chip antennas, TDK's lineup includes filters, baluns, diplexers, and directional couplers. Please use these products according to the operating temperature ranges indicated in their catalogs, specifications, and other materials, and inquire with us for further details.

Figure 3. Automotive Chip Antenna Selection Guide

Click part number in the diagram for more details.

Chip Antenna
Mounting Guideline
Application Frequency Band
Sub GHz Band GNSS Band 2.4GHz Band 5GHz Band
PCB Center-edge
Mounting Position

Mount besides corner of PC Board
(Surround by GND at 3 directions)

Single Band
 
ANT161575DT-2000AM1

1574-1576MHz / 2400-2484MHz
1.6x0.8x0.4mm

ANT162442ST-1000AM1

2400-2484MHz
1.6x0.8x0.4mm

ANT165550ST-1003AM1

5150-5950MHz
1.6x0.8x0.4mm

Dual Band
 
ANT161575DT-2000AM1

1574-1576MHz / 2400-2484MHz
1.6x0.8x0.4mm

 
   
ANT162442DT-2001AM2

2400-2484MHz / 5150-5850MHz
1.6x0.8x0.4mm

PCB Corner
Mounting Positions

Mount at corner of PC Board
(Surround by GND at 2 or 1 directions)

Mount at near the corner of PC Board
(Surround by GND at 3 directions)

Single Band
 
ANT161575DT-2000AM1*1

1574-1576MHz / 2400-2484MHz
1.6x0.8x0.4mm

ANT162442ST-1201AM1

2400-2484MHz
1.6x0.8x0.4mm

ANT165550ST-1003AM1*1

5150-5950MHz
1.6x0.8x0.4mm

Dual Band
 
ANT161575DT-2000AM1*1

1574-1576MHz / 2400-2484MHz
1.6x0.8x0.4mm

 
   
ANT162442DT-2001AM2*1

2400-2484MHz / 5150-5850MHz
1.6x0.8x0.4mm

*1 : Please mount at near the corner of PC Board for these items.

Inductors for Automotive High-Frequency Circuits

TDK's high-frequency inductors are laminated-type inductors which have achieved higher inductance, higher Q values, and even smaller sizes through our unique multilayer board process technology. They play extremely important roles in achieving robust connectivity through stable signal transmission.

Figure 4. Inductors for high frequency applications Selection Guide

Click part number in the diagram for more details.

  • 一般グレードCommercial Grade
  • 車載グレードAutomotive Grade
  • Multilayer
Category 0.4mm x 0.2mm
[EIA 01005]
0.6mm x 0.3mm
[EIA 0201]
1.0mm x 0.5mm
[EIA 0402]
1.6mm x 0.8mm
[EIA 0603]
2.0mm x 1.2mm
[EIA 0805]
For RF
Matching
Circuit

Critical Matching

PAM FEM
Multi-band
Cellular
[more than 5 bands]
5 Generation App.

Super High Q

MHQ0402PSA

0.2 to 22nH
110 to 600mA
T=0.22mm Max.

MHQ0603P

0.6 to 39nH
160 to 1000mA
T=0.4mm Max.

MHQ1005P

0.7 to 560nH
70 to 1200mA
T=0.6mm Max.

B82496C
SIMID 0603-C

1 to 220nH
110 to 1800mA
T=0.9mm Max.

B82498F3
SIMID 0805-F3

2.7 to 820nH
180mA to 1000mA
T=1.4mm Max.

Normal Matching

Cellular(2G,3G,4G)
[less than 4bands]
IoT M2M
WLAN Bluetooth

High Q

MLG0402P

0.2 to 33nH
120 to 350mA
T=0.22mm Max.

MLG0603P

0.6 to 120nH
80 to 1000mA
T=0.33mm Max.

     

Standard Q

 
MLG0603S

0.3 to 180nH
50 to 600mA
T=0.33mm Max.

MLG1005S

0.3 to 390nH
50 to 1000mA
T=0.55mm Max.

   
For Bias Circuit

High Current

 
MLG0603PPA

2.2 to 4.7nH
900 to 1400mA
T=0.33mm Max.

     

Summary

To achieve the goals of greater safety and comfort for autonomous driving and our automobile-oriented society, vehicles must be equipped with cameras, various sensors, and wireless communication functions. TDK can provide electronic components to make such communication functions and self-position estimation functions more reliable and stable. Please inquire separately if you are investigating high-frequency products other than chip antennas and inductors which are not specifically designated as automotive products.

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